Blog

Organizing and Analyzing the Data

The more time I’ve spent with this project the more I have realized just how much work is needed to be done on infant mortality rates in historic Latah County (Idaho). It is very time consuming to find information on infants and children who passed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. As a result, this project is growing bigger and bigger and bigger, much like a balloon inflating with helium. For the sake of finishing my Center for Digital Inquiry and Learning project this semester and getting a white paper/poster out of it for the coming academic year (2017-2018), I am going to crunch some of the data. However, I recognize the data is sorely incomplete.

editedcem4.jpg
Moscow Cemetery, May 2017

My methodology was to start with the largest cemetery in my county (Latah), and then identify historic headstones associated with infants and children in Latah County. Thankfully, someone (or several people) had taken the time to transcribe all the headstones at some point in our town’s history, and those transcriptions are located at the Latah County Historical Society, which is conveniently located a few blocks from my house. I selected the first block of the cemetery, which is a geographical space bound by mostly very old burials.

Initially, I thought 35 headstones would be a good sample size, but now I am realizing that it is very difficult and exceedingly time consuming to find good data on historic headstones (1920s and earlier). With the exception of one individual, I defined “children” as individuals under 12 years of age. I recognize that’s extraordinarily arbitrary, but I can always go back and expand the data set if I receive funding or use this as a pedagogical opportunity in a class. I also decided to stick to headstones that date to 1920 or earlier, which presented logistical challenges given the dearth of historical records for individuals prior to 1920.

editedcem3.jpg
Moscow Cemetery, May 2017

When I started digging into the archives at the Latah County Courthouse, I began to question my original approach to conducting this project, which was to use the headstones as a starting point for research and locating infant and children’s names. The Latah County Courthouse has death certificates dating from August 8, 1911 through February 2, 1940. They also have birth certificates dating from February 6, 1912 to October 10, 1916. They have a register of births and a register of deaths that date from 1907 to 1911.

However, as I’ve mulled over it this week, I’ve realized that the headstones were a really great place with which to begin this research. Many of the interred children are not visible in the historic records I’ve been pouring over, meaning that their headstone is the only material evidence of their life and existence. Had I started with the records, I would have ignored many of the headstones and children/infants that are in the first block of the older portion of Moscow Cemetery. The records are important, though, for identifying infants that are missing from the cemetery.

The headstones likewise identify children missing in the historical records. So far I’ve identified several individuals who were supposedly buried in Moscow but not at Moscow Cemetery. If the project gets funded in the future, it would be worth investigating if the children are at one of the smaller cemeteries in town, or if they may have been buried on someone’s property. This cross-referencing of headstones and data at the Latah County Historical Society is what historical archaeologists call a “multiscaler” approach to historical research, one that examines what is present and what is missing in a variety of historical and archaeological data sets.

IMG_20170518_114331
Moscow Cemetery, May 2017

The data set is tiny, but nonetheless I did do some very basic analyses of the age of death of the children and infants I sampled. As the pie chart illustrates below, the majority (60%) of children and infants in my sample passed away before they turned 1. The advent of air conditioning and refrigeration along with vaccinations aided in the reduction of infant mortality rates, which I plan to discuss further in a poster for the Society for Historical Archaeology’s conference next year. I will crunch a bit more data for the next blog and share the months at which the majority of children and infants in my sample passed.

Age of Death

My next steps are to load the data I have acquired into Unity and get a virtual reality experience working for the headstones that have associated data. I will test it out at the cemetery this coming week, and will then finish up the paperwork and poster creation work. I’d like to take GPS points of the headstones, too, and dump that data into a CARTO map if I am not completely swamped with other work. It would also be good to collect oral histories from cemetery employees, coroners, and undertakers to better understand the movement of and laws surrounding human remains in historic Idaho.

It feels nice to be so close to finishing the project, and I am hoping that it generates interest and potentially more funding to shed light on the history of infants and children who passed in north Idaho. Below I’ve included all photographs I’ve taken of the infants/children headstones in this study and associated information with their histories. I am still digging up additional data on familysearch.org, and will be done with that in the coming week.

 

Old Section Block 1

Row 1

Estes, Susie Hope. Born 9/3/1897. Died 9/1/1899.

Estes, Lena. Born 1/12/1903. Died 8/8/1903.

Kennedy, Gerdnar. Born 8/12/1897. Died 9/12/1897.

Schlup, Merl Christian. Born 2/27/1899. Died 9/16/1899.

Schlup, Mabel Clare. Born 2/10/1889. Died 11/23/1896.

Schlup, Genevera. Born 8/24/1891. Died 9/7/1891.

Row 2

Rood, __ma D. Age 8 Days Old.

Schmauder, Mina M. Born 11/10/1897. Died 5/24/1898.

Row 4

Giles, Baby Fred Giles. Died 1902.

Hampton, Baby J.E. Died 1903.

McComber, Baby. 1903.

Refsland, Elser H. Born 5/14/1898. Died 11/13/1903.

Watlands, Baby. Died 1903.

Row 5

Clark, Loron Orin. 1887-1893.

Garren, Freda Gladys. Died 9/2/1903. Aged 2 Years, 8 Months.

Row 6

Matson, Benny. Born 4/12/1904. Died 8/22/1906.

Row 8

Livingston, John Clermont. Born 4/18/1909. Died 11/14/1913.

Mitzimberg, Baby Bert. Born 11/17/1913. Died 12/8/1913.

Birth Certificate (Latah County Courthouse)

Burial Permit (Latah County Courthouse)

Morgan, Levi Nelson. Born 4/6/1914. Died 10/1915.

Death Certificate (Latah County Courthouse)

Row 9

Doyle, Meryl Madison. Born 1/30/1906. Died 9/18/1906.

Weigand, Gainford V. Born 8/16/1916. Died 8/27/1916.

Death Certificate (Latah County Courthouse)

Zumwalt, Lloyd M. Born 11/16/1896. Died 2/26/1901.

Zumwalt, Maudie. Born 1/10/1901. Died 1/24/1901.

Zumwalt, Roy. Born 8/18/1898. Died 6/10/1899.

Row 10

Ericson, Raymond. Born 2/3/1913. Died 4/26/1918.

Death Certificate (Latah County Courthouse)

Williams, Olive. Born 1920. Died 1920.

Death Certificate (Latah County Courthouse)

Row 14

Denning, Mary Y. Born 12/13/1889. Died 10/12/1891.

Old Section Block 2

Row 1

Otness, Vergil. Born 8/18/1900. Died 12/4/1900.

Row 2

Showalter, Carroll Adell. 1898-1902.

Row 5

Boyer, John Wesley. Born 5/4/1903. Died 9/12/1903.

Boyer, Margaret Elizabeth. Born 8/16/1896. Died 8/4/1908.

Coroner’s Report (Latah County Courthouse)

Hawley, Baby. Born 8/22/1907. Died 8/24/1907.

Found Birth Certificate for Sibling (Latah County Courthouse)

Johnston, Nellie. Born 2/4/1909. Died 8/11/1909.

Advertisements

Learning about Infant/Child Mortality through Death Certificates

This week I spent several days at the Latah County Courthouse looking at death certificates in their original forms. They aren’t digitized, but I imagine they are likely in a digital format down at the Idaho Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics in Boise. However, if I request a record from them, I have to pay $16 per person and per record (so a birth certificate and death certificate would be $32). Looking at the records up here in Moscow is free, and photocopying them costs $0.25 a page. In terms of data sharing, death certificates are considered open access as long as they are 50 years or older.

In addition, the majority of birth and death records in Idaho start in 1911, and any birth/death documentation prior to 1911 is scant. I don’t have a budget for this project, so requesting records for the infants/children sans documents up here in Moscow is out of the question for this phase of the project.

The Latah County Courthouse employees were very helpful in locating the few original death certificates and birth certificates they have on file. The Latah County Courthouse has death certificates dating from August 8, 1911 through February 2, 1940. They also have birth certificates dating from February 6, 1912 to October 10, 1916. This week I went through death certificates dating from September 21, 1912 through April 19, 1914.

Like any good researcher, I found myself completely absorbed by the stories contained in each death certificate as well as fascinated by the way illness was categorized and documented in the early 1900s. Needless to say, I took my time going through the death certificates, reading stories about suicide, gun violence, and epidemics that swept through the Palouse.

stillborn carter
An infant that was stillborn on April 1, 1913. The death certificate states that she was born in Moscow and buried in Moscow, but her headstone has not been located at Moscow Cemetery. She may be interred at another cemetery in Moscow. Her parents were Jessie Whittey of Idaho and P.B. Carter of Washington.

 

If I had to start this project all over again, I’d probably start with these death certificates and then try to locate the children’s graves in Moscow Cemetery. However, many of the children and infants documented in the death certificate ledgers are missing from Moscow Cemetery despite saying they were buried there (or in Moscow), so perhaps starting with the headstones at Moscow Cemetery was the right approach. I am always fascinated by the dialectical relationship involved framing a research question and then carrying out the research, how you inevitably have to retool and reexamination your initial research methodology as soon as you begin discovering the existing data. It reminds me of Ian Hodder’s discussion of the recursive, reflexive relationship between research design, data collection, and data interpretation (among many other things involved the research process) in The Archaeological Process, where the researcher is constantly returning the original research question and questioning the methods one is using to address it as they move through the research process.

One of the joys of research is seeing a project expand right before your eyes, and envisioning what it could be if you had more time, money, and, depending on the project, staff. I would like to pursue a grant in the coming years to extend this project to include all infants/children in Latah County who passed prior to 1920. This is an area that needs more attention because as my research has shown there is often little known about infants/children beyond their headstones (if they exist).

Digging deep into the archives has helped solve a few mysteries. This week involving solving the mystery of Gainford V. Weigand, who had nothing more than his date of birth and date of passing on his headstone when I first began this project.

gainford
Gainford V. Weigand’s headstone at Moscow Cemetery. The headstone reads “Gone so soon.” I discovered his death certificate at the Latah County Courthouse on May 10, 2017.

There was no additional data on Gainford at Latah County Historical Society (that I could locate), so I was excited to find his death certificate at the Latah County Courthouse. It took me a second and third glance to recognize Gainford’s name on the death certificate due to the stylized cursive handwriting. I also triple checked the date of birth and date of passing. His father was Herman Weigand from Nebraska, and his mother’s first name was Alice. She was from Idaho.

weigland
Gainford Weigand’s death certificate from the Latah County Courthouse.

The death certificate says that the cause of Gainford’s death was “inanition.” According to Baker, inanition “was a medical term reserved for the most acutely ill…patients…it may have overlapped with dehydration or starvation” (2005:111). This term started to disappear from medical books and diagnoses in 1920. I dug a little deeper and found an 1895 article in the Archives of Pediatrics describing the condition. From that article, I gathered that inanition often arose from starvation when mothers could not adequately nurse their children. Holt, the author of the article, writes that infants would often recover when they were fed by a wet nurse, demonstrating, at least to Holt, that the infant’s mother had what we now call insufficient milk syndrome.

Holt - inanition
Description of “Inanition” from Emmett L. Holt’s 1895 “Inanition Fever in the Newly Born,” Archives of Pediatrics, Volume 12, No. 8, pp. 561-565.

This is just one of several stories I have unraveled this week. I will share the rest in upcoming blogs!

Works Cited

Holt, Emmett L. 1895. “Inanition Fever in the Newly Born.” Archives of Pediatrics 12(8):561-565.

Baker, Jeffrey B. 2005. “Historical Adventures in the Newborn Nursery: Forgotten Stories and Syndromes.” In Clio in the Clinic: History in Medical Practice, edited by Jacalyn Duffin, pp. 105-115. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Archival and Photographic Work

Since I have the technological components of this project finished, I am currently focusing on the archival and photographic components of it. I completed the photography last week, which involved photographing all the headstones associated with children in my study. The weather has been so bad this year that we have had very few days during which I could photograph the headstones.

Database
The database. Note the lack of basic information – hopefully I can fill it in this month with additional archival research.

I created a data table outlining the very basics of the infants and children in my study, which includes a child’s/infant’s name, date of birth, date of passing, birthplace, cause of death, location in Moscow Cemetery, and headstone photograph. Thus far, it has been difficult to find the basics of the infant/child’s life. Findagrave.com has been somewhat helpful, often providing some basic information on a child’s parents, or a newspaper reference to the death (which I will track down as part of this research project).

To fill in the gaps, I visited Moscow’s Family History Center run by the Mormon Church, and they helped me find additional records associated with the infants/children’s parents. They showed me the ropes of FamilySearch and recommended searching through local newspapers from the time in which the infants/children lived.

I’ve solved at least one mystery through my archival work. The grave pictured above is that of a child with the name __ma. The child passed away when they were 8 days old. One of the parents is listed on the headstone, but the other parent is missing due to headstone damage. The 1900 Census Schedule for Idaho lists the parents of this child as Ora Rood and James Rood, which can be seen above. James Rood was born in Illinois, and Ora Rood was born in Iowa. They are listed as farmers. I am hoping to find the child’s death certificate with this information.

This week I also utilized the University of Idaho Library’s old newspapers archives on microfiche. So far I haven’t been too successful in locating information on infants/children’s deaths in the newspapers, but I did find some interesting historical information on the spread of diseases during the time period in which I am studying. Below are some articles from Moscow, Idaho’s The Double Standard, which covered everything from international news to local happenings. During late November and early December of 1896, there was a diphtheria outbreak in Moscow and surrounding towns. It was so bad that the schools in Moscow and Wallace were closed down to prevent the spread of diphtheria. This may have been the cause of the several undocumented infant/child burials found in Moscow Cemetery.

This week and potentially next week will involve going through additional newspapers as well as several visits to the Latah County Courthouse to review death certificates.

Bringing 3D Models into Augmented Reality Projects

As with most digital projects, I got distracted with doing more than what I planned. I was curious as to how you can pull a 3D model into an augmented reality project, as I’ve done a bit of work designing and creating 3D models in Autodesk’s 3ds Max. I decided to take one of our former students and current employees out to Moscow Cemetery with me on Friday to create 3D models two ways: one using SCANN3D, which is an app I downloaded on my phone, and the other using my DSLR cameras and then generating the model in Agisoft’s Photoscan. I wanted to see how the same headstone turned out as a 3D model using the two products.

I haven’t used Photoscan before, and once I downloaded the professional version I quickly realized that it wasn’t exactly designed for beginners. I decided to table learning Photoscan until more of this current project is complete, because 3d model generation isn’t something I promised I’d do as part of the grant. If I end up having time to play with it this semester (AFTER the project is finished!), then I will.

I had trouble getting the SCANN3d model to export off of the app, so I contacted their customer service via DM on Twitter. They responded immediately and helped me get the model to render properly. The model had a high polygon count, which means that it takes longer to render in game or augmented reality environments (especially if you have multiple models with high polygon counts). It also is rendered in tris rather than quadrangles, which makes the model look more chunky and not as smooth.

I also had some issues getting the texture from the SCANN3D app model to apply when I initially opened it in a Microsoft 3D modeling program (and am still having this issue in Sketchfab, which is a place where you can upload and showcase your 3d models), but I managed to figure that issue out and get the texture to map onto the 3d model. I don’t know Sketchfab all too well, so I gave up and focused on what I do know. I then brought that 3d model into the game design engine of Unity (which is free to download), and spent time figuring out how to apply the texture to the 3d model in there.

Once I was in Unity, I used the same augmented reality (AR) setup I borrowed from the Programming Historian’s tutorial to create an AR app. My goal was to get the app to project the headstone’s 3d model when I hold up my phone to the real-world version or photograph of the same headstone. The headstone I selected to model was that of Susie Hope Estes, who I detailed in my last blog post. After spending a good amount of time in Unity, I got it to work. As you’ll see below, I held up a photograph of Estes’ gravestone on my phone to Unity while in play/webcam mode, and it recognized the image as one I associated with the 3d model, and then projected the model.

Although it was raining, I decided to test out the app in real-time by taking it to Moscow Cemetery and seeing if it would indeed recognize Susie Hope Estes’ gravestone sans photograph (and in poor weather conditions). My daughter joined me to help photograph the process. The app did indeed recognize the real world headstone and projected the 3d model of it I created the day before using SCANN3D’s app.

Over the next month I will continue to gather historical data on the children buried at Moscow Cemetery, which will then be loaded into Unity and projected when one is viewing the headstone via my app. I am a bit lost on how to create a user interface for the app (I am assuming that needs to be done in Unity…), so that’s the next technological component I need to figure out. I also want to map all the gravestones involved in this project using some sort of web mapping application (I haven’t made up my mind about that, yet), and an ESRI Storymap if I have time.

Scale and Historical Research

A good portion of historical research involves defining the scale and extent of your project. This means limiting your research to a specific time, place, and group of people. It also means being judicious about the amount of data you plan to collect given your time and budgetary constraints. I’ve spent the last couple of weeks doing just that: figuring out what is feasible given the availability of historical records and the time I have committed to this grant and project.

At this point, I have narrowed down my study to the children buried at Moscow Cemetery. In order to find records about them, I will have to look for their families and descendants, as children who passed in the late 1800s and early 1900s didn’t leave many records, if any at all. Due to the semester-long time limit of the project, I’ve decided to define “children” as individuals under the age of 10. I realize this is arbitrary, but if I decide to broaden this project I can always go back and focus on ALL children under the age of 18. I’ve also decided to leave out individuals whose headstones are not visible, illegible, or feature ambiguous data sets. I’ve limited my sample size to 35 individuals who died prior to 1920. Again, this is arbitrary, but future research could involve expanding the data set beyond the 1920 date of passing. Finally, since a nice map of the cemetery exists, I’ve decided to choose the individuals based upon the “block” in which they are buried on the pre-existing map.

Below are the individuals/families I have selected to study thus far (thank you to Latah County Historical Society and Zach Wnek for help with this research). I have 32 names thus far, so I will need to add three additional individuals to the sample. I have collected additional information about what is transcribed on their headstones (see link on the individual’s name), as well as information on their parents/family members when available. The next steps involve locating newspaper articles from the time period in which they passed, searching Ancestry.com for additional information on the families, checking out Census data from the families, and reading through local history books to see if the family names appear.

I plan to spend the next two weeks doing this work, and will hopefully start to have some data to pull into my augmented reality experience by the end of March! I also plan to 3d model all of the grave sites associated with the individuals below, and georeference them. I am hoping I will have time to squeeze in a nice map via the open source mapping platform of CARTO.

Old Section Block 1

Row 1

Estes, Susie Hope. Born 9/3/1897. Died 9/1/1899.

Estes, Lena. Born 1/12/1903. Died 8/8/1903.

Kennedy, Gerdnar. Born 8/12/1897. Died 9/12/1897.

Schlup, Merl Christian. Born 2/27/1899. Died 9/16/1899.

Schlup, Mabel Clare. Born 2/10/1889. Died 11/23/1896.

Schlup, Genevera. Born 8/24/1891. Died 9/7/1891.

Row 2

Rood, __ma D. Age 8 Days Old.

Schmauder, Mina M. Born 11/10/1897. Died 5/24/1898.

Row 4

Giles, Baby Fred Giles. Died 1902.

Hampton, Baby J.E. Died 1903.

McComber, Baby. 1903.

Refsland, Elser H. Born 5/14/1898. Died 11/13/1903.

Watlands, Baby. Died 1903.

Row 5

Clark, Loron Orin. 1887-1893.

Garren, Freda Gladys. Died 9/2/1903. Aged 2 Years, 8 Months.

Row 6

Matson, Benny. Born 4/12/1904. Died 8/22/1906.

Row 8

Livingston, John Clermont. Born 4/18/1909. Died 11/14/1913.

Mitzimberg, Baby Bert. Born 11/17/1913. Died 12/8/1913.

Morgan, Levi Nelson. Born 4/6/1914. Died 10/1915.

Row 9

Doyle, Meryl Madison. Born 1/30/1906. Died 9/18/1906.

Weigand, Gainford V. Born 8/16/1916. Died 8/27/1916.

Zumwalt, Lloyd M. Born 11/16/1896. Died 2/26/1901.

Zumwalt, Maudie. Born 1/10/1901. Died 1/24/1901.

Zumwalt, Roy. Born 8/18/1898. Died 6/10/1899.

Row 10

Ericson, Raymond. Born 2/3/1913. Died 4/26/1918.

Williams, Olive. Born 1920. Died 1920.

Row 14

Denning, Mary Y. Born 12/13/1889. Died 10/12/1891.

Old Section Block 2

Row 1

Otness, Vergil. Born 8/18/1900. Died 12/4/1900.

Row 2

Showalter, Carroll Adell. 1898-1902.

Row 5

Boyer, John Wesley. Born 5/4/1903. Died 9/12/1903.

Hawley, Baby. Born 8/22/1907. Died 8/24/1907.

Johnston, Nellie. Born 2/4/1909. Died 8/11/1909.

Research is a Meandering Path

I decided this week is the week of “being in the field,” one where I start looking at the physical and archival materials with which I will be working. It was finally sunny and a good deal of snow has melted, permitting visibility of the headstones in Moscow, Idaho’s Moscow Cemetery. My initial plan was to conduct archival research on 35 of the oldest headstones in Moscow Cemetery, and to create an interactive augmented reality experience for visitors to learn about those interred. The augmented reality component would involve overlaying historic media and documents regarding the 35 oldest headstones/individuals at Moscow Cemetery.

As I was walking through Moscow Cemetery today, I was struck by the amount of infants buried there, some of whom lack names. Part of the reason I wanted to document the 35 oldest burials in Moscow Cemetery was to understand public health in historic Moscow and Idaho, more broadly. Perhaps I noticed the infants’ headstones because of today’s news stories in our region. Many children (unvaccinated and vaccinated) have contracted the measles, and today it was announced that a child living about 35 miles from our town was diagnosed with measles. I have children who are still young enough to be highly susceptible to measles, mumps, and other contagious diseases. Seeing the amount of children and infants buried at Moscow Cemetery from the late 1800s reminded me of how fragile life was before germ theory, before vaccinations, and before mass public health campaigns.

I then considered shifting my research project to documenting 35 of the oldest grave sites associated with infants. I began to look at headstones associated with infants, and attempted to test a 3D scanning application called SCANN3D. I was initially going to use Autodesk 123D Catch as I have worked with Autodesk products in the past, but I couldn’t get the Android version of it to install on my new Google Pixel phone. I wasn’t sure how great the model would be given the app and the instability of my phone (I didn’t bring something upon which to mount my phone while taking photographs of the headstone).

SCANN3D did the job, however. It provides simple tips and a walk-through of the process, and then had me take about 15 photographs of the headstone while still in the app. After I finished taking the photographs, the app spent about 5 minutes processing the images and generating a 3d model from them. It provided an exportable file that can be edited in modeling software. The model turned out better than I expected.

1487369168567
3D Model of a Headstone at Moscow, Idaho’s Moscow Cemetery

I have taken coursework in 3D modeling (using Autodesk’s 3ds Max), so my next plan of action is to figure out how to improve the mesh and close any gaps in it. I would like to bring this model into the augmented reality experience next week, too.

After generating this model, I headed over to the Latah County Historical Society and found two binders of information on Moscow Cemetery. This information includes transcriptions of most of the cemetery’s headstones, including the one I modeled above.

I spoke with the collections manager about my project and he thought there was a possibility that Idaho did not maintain death and birth records for the state’s population before 1912. That means it will be very difficult to find media to include in the augmented reality experience of Moscow Cemetery. My next step, then, is to figure out what might be available beyond the headstone transcriptions. I plan on checking out Census Schedule data for the town, archival information available in digital search engines (e.g. Ancestry.com), and search historic newspapers for any mention of infant mortality in the late 1800s.

As with all research projects, then, this one is a meandering journey that is taking me in fascinating directions, some of which will hopefully address issues of public health in historic Idaho.

Getting the Project off of the Ground

I spent last week and this week reading tutorials on Augmented Reality and looking at different approaches to building an AR project. I settled upon following The Programming Historian’s tutorial on AR projects, which was fairly easy to replicate. I do have experience working in Unity, which is a software program used to design games and AR/VR experiences. That knowledge base came in handy when I was struggling with getting my image to project/visualize in Unity.

The Programming Historian’s tutorial had you choose a book cover as the object that would be “recognized” or “tracked” by the app. Luckily I was in the University of Idaho’s Library and found a book cover with the help of the Center for Digital Inquiry and Learning’s staff. That image was then placed into Unity, and I added a photograph of the book’s author as the “object/image” that would appear when the app recognized the book cover. This sounds like a fairly easy process, but it took about 2.5 hours this morning for me to get it right (after about 3.5 hours of reading on AR/Unity/all associated plug-ins last week). So I have the very basics of AR down for now, which is a big milestone for me.

This coming week I intend to gather data that I want to use in my AR project. From what I have been told, there is historical data on the cemetery at the Latah County Historical Society here in Moscow, Idaho. I will be dropping by there, and, if weather permits (which is a BIG if right now), hopefully making it to the cemetery to photograph some of the gravestones that I would like to document. In the coming weeks, I’d also like to play around with Aurasma and other quick AR development programs. The secondary goal of this project is to translate it to a college student audience who may or may not have any background in computer science/gaming/etc. I’m going to be looking for quick and easy solutions to getting students into AR for the purpose of archaeological data preservation and historical research.